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It's mapping it using an advanced "Traceroute".
When you ping something or transfer any data for that matter. The data will take a particular path, crossing router after router till it arrives. Traceroute gives you a list of all the IP addresses of the router interfaces that the data traverses. By doing this you can see when you hit another network, and the routes branch off into multiple directions, essentially going out a particular interface, leading to a different network. If you look close you can see a number of highly redundant routes toward the center, and you'll notice them diminishing toward the edges.
Something they talked about on the site was interesting
-This project started as a bet, but after I warmed up to the idea I found a lot of value in the project itself:
-Mapping the Internet weekly will allow us to see major disasters in different parts of the world. The Internet is a huge disasters sensor. If I had maps of pre-war Iraq and then compared them to today, one could see how badly Iraq was destroyed. The idea of a metaphysical representation of the real world is very interesting to me.